Organic production is a system that integrates "cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (Source: National Organic Program)

Organic Livestock Production


Organic Forage Production

"Organic farming systems rely on practices such as cultural and biological pest management, and virtually prohibit synthetic chemicals in crop production and antibiotics or hormones in livestock production. Organic production requires a higher level of management and commitment, not less. Organic pest management requires an integrated approach. The list of organic pesticides is limited and usually expensive. Thus a more sustainable system of control is necessary for effective pest and weed control, and that is more sustainable in the long term for all of agriculture. Cultural and biological control methods used together in a system will be much more effective and probably make the difference of being successful in organic production."


Seed Quality
  • Removal of existing vegetation without herbicides.
  • Weed control without herbicides.
  • Providing adequate quantities of essential nutrients without synthetic fertilizers.
  • Quantifying nutrient availability in manure and biosolids. Inability to benefit from recent improvements in species cultivars developed by molecular breeding techniques.
  • Availability of organic fertilizers.
  • Availability of organically produced forage seeds.


eCampus Course Lectures on Organic Forages

  • Introduction
  • Establishment
  • Management
  • Utilization



  • Shewmaker, G. et al. 2010. Pasture and Grazing Management in the Northwest. PNW 614. Chapters 3 and 4.
  • Moore, A. 2019. Nutrient Management for Pastures: Western Oregon and Washington. EM 9224.
  • Soil Acidity in Oregon. EM 9061.