A variety of fuels can be made from biomassi resources including the liquid fuels ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane. Biofuels research and development is composed of three main areas: producing the fuels, applications and uses of the fuels, and distribution infrastructure. Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles, but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. For information about the use of biofuels in vehicles, see the Alternative Fuel Vehicle page under Transportation. See the Transportation page for information about the biofuels distribution infrastructure. See the Hydrogen page for more information about hydrogen as a fuel.
Source: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Biofuels
Crops Used for Biofuels:
Cellulosic crops --> bioethanol
Grain crops -> bioethanol
Oilseed crops -> biodiesel
Biopower technologies are proven electricity generation options in the United States, with 10 gigawatts of installed capacity. All of today's capacity is based on mature, direct-combustion technology. Future efficiency improvements will include co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired boilers and the introduction of high-efficiency gasification combined-cycle systems, fuel cell systems, and modular systems.
Biopower Program, Activities Overview
Source: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Biopower
Biobased chemicals and materials are commercial or industrial products, other than food and feed, derived from biomass feedstocks. Biobased products include green chemicals, renewable plastics, natural fibers, and natural structural materials. Many of these products can replace products and materials traditionally derived from petrochemicals, but new and improved processing technologies will be required.
Source: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Biobased Chemicals and Materials