Most climate reporting stations report only one observation per day. Maximum-minimum thermometers are used to obtain the highest and lowest temperatures in each 24-hour period ending at the time of observation. The daily mean temperature is assumed to be the average of the maximum and minimum temperature.

The mean monthly values were computed by taking the 30-year mean of the monthly means. The monthly means were computed from the daily values. The mean annual value was computed by taking the 30-year mean of the yearly means. The yearly means were computed by averaging their 12 monthly mean values.

The mean monthly values were computed by taking the 30-year mean of the monthly means. The monthly means were computed from the daily values. The mean annual value was computed by taking the 30-year mean of the yearly means. The yearly means were computed by averaging their 12 monthly mean values.

The mean monthly values were computed by taking the 30-year mean of the monthly means. The monthly means were computed from the daily values. The mean annual value was computed by taking the 30-year mean of the yearly means. The yearly means were computed by averaging their 12 monthly mean values.

The following elements are derived from other elements using regression with temperature data.

The date of occurrence of the last 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature (0 degrees C) observation in spring was based on the median, mean, and extreme dates of such occurrence from 30 years of daily minimum temperature values, respectively. If at least one 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature was observed in the first six months of the calendar year, but a 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature did not occur in at least one-half of the years of available data, then the station was designated "RARE FREEZE." If no 32 degree Fahrenheit temperatures were observed in the first six months of the calendar year, then the station was designated "NO FREEZE." Daily minimum temperatures were the lowest observed temperatures for the 24-hour period ending at the time of observation for a given station.

The date of occurrence of the first 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature (0 degrees C) observation in autumn was based on the median, mean, and extreme dates of such occurrence from 30 years of daily minimum temperature values, respectively. If at least one 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature was observed in the last six months of the calendar year, but a 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature did not occur in at least one-half of the years of available data, then the station was designated "RARE FREEZE." If no 32 degree Fahrenheit temperatures were observed in the last six months of the calendar year, then the station was designated "NO FREEZE." Daily minimum temperatures were the lowest observed temperatures for the 24-hour period ending at the time of observation for a given station.

The length of the freeze-free period was based on the difference between the median and mean dates, respectively, of the last 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature in spring (element 1) and the first 32 degree Fahrenheit temperature in autumn (element 2). If either element was designated "RARE FREEZE" the station was excluded from the database. If both elements were designated "NO FREEZE," then this element was designated the same. If only one element was designated "NO FREEZE," then the station was excluded. Daily minimum temperatures were the lowest observed temperatures for 24 hours ending at the time of observation for a given station.

Cooling degree day values were derived from a base of 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees C). Simple arithmetic procedures were not applied to obtain the cooling degree day values. Instead, the rational conversion formulae developed by Thom (1954, 1966) were used. These formulae allow the adjusted mean temperature normals and their standard deviations to be converted to degree day normals with uniform consistency. In some cases this procedure will yield a small number of degree days for months when degree days may not otherwise be expected. This results from statistical considerations of the formulae. The annual degree day normals were calculated by adding the corresponding monthly degree day normals.