Medicago sativa L.

Alsike Clover field
Trifolium hybridum L.

Arrowleaf Clover flower
Trifolium vesiculosum Savi

Late season winter annual with predominantly white, large flower heads maturing from bottom to top and large, non-hairy (glabrous) arrow-shaped leaves generally with a large white V mark.  

Predominant uses are for pasture and hay, with high forage quality and minimal bloat risk.

Not very tolerant of soil acidity; responds well to P and K fertilization.

Crimson Clover
Trifolium incarnatum L.

Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) is native to the Mediterranean region and was introduced into the U.S. during the 1800's. It is well suited for the southern states from Virginia to eastern Texas and in Oregon where growing for seed production is the primary use. It is easy to establish since it has large seeds and good seedling vigor. Since it is a winter annual, it is most often used for overseeding warm-season perennial grasses for winter and spring grazing. It provides an early maturing forage and istolerant of a wide range of soils which many legumes are not. It can tolerate a wide range of pH (5-8) but is not tolerant of poor drainage. Precipitation requirement is > 30 inches (760 mm).

Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.
Red Clover field
Trifolium pratense L.

Short-lived perennial with heads of pinkish-violet flowers and hairy (pubescent) oval leaflets with a white V mark.  With erect growing stems, red clover is used primarily for hay and pasture. 

Fairly drought tolerant, it tolerates moderate soil acidity and poorer drainage conditions than does alfalfa.

Seedling vigor is better than any other clover; it is especially well-suited for seeding into cool season perennial grass sods.

Subterranean Clover
Trifolium subterraneum L.
White Clover
Trifolium repens L.

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a very valuable forage species. It is a common, short-lived, perennial legume which can reseed itself under favorable conditions. White clover is not often planted alone because it grows so close to the ground (8-10 inches), making grazing difficult and production low.  It is used to produce a high-quality pasture, hay, and/or silage when planted with a grass. It then makes an excellent feed for livestock and poultry.  White clover also works well as a cover crop because it grows rapidly and spreads quickly via stolons.  It is frequently used in orchards and vineyards. It grows well in cool, moist weather.  White clover probably came from Asia Minor and spread during colonization.  It has shown a wide range of adaptation.