Importance of Forages and Grasslands of the World

  • Photosynthesis including plant animal interactions.
  • Carbon cycle including sequestration.
  • Nitrogen cycle including biological nitrogen fixation.
  • Key species.
  • Economic contributions.
  • Social and environmental contributions.


  • Seeding method, rate, depth, machinery.
  • Pest management.

Fertilizaton and Liming

  • Soil sampling.
  • Fertilizer type, amount, and timing.

Growth and Regrowth

  • Leaf area index.
  • Meristems.
  • Defoliation frequency and severity.

Hay and Silage Systems

  • Differences and similarities.
  • Characteristics of high quality products.
  • Tips for producing and machinery.

Pastures and Grazing Systems

  • Set stocking vs. Management Intensive Grazing.
  • System components.
  • Management guidelines.

Quality and Testing

  • Characteristics.
  • Lab analyses and methodologies.
  • Interpretation.


  • Ration formulation.
  • Anti-quality components.
  • Animal health issues.