A - C - F - H - J - K - L - M - P - R - S - T - W - Y

An, Z.Q., M.R. Siegel, W. Hollin, H.F. Tsai, D. Schmidt, and C.L. Schardl. 1993. Relationships among non-Acremonium sp. fungal endophytes in five grass species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:1540-1548.

Christensen, M.J. 1995. Variation in the ability of Acremonium endophytes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and meadow fescue (L. pratensis) to form compatible associations in the three grasses. Mycol. Res. 99:466-470.

Christensen, M.J., O.J.-P. Ball, R.J. Bennett, and C.L. Schardl. 1997. Fungal and host genotype effects on compatibility and vascular colonization by Epichloë festucae. Mycol. Res. 101:493-501.

Christensen, M.J., R.J. Bennett, H.A. Ansari, H. Koga, R.D. Johnson, G.T. Bryan, W.R. Simpson, J.P. Koolaard, E.M. Nickless, and C.R. Voisey. 2008. Epichloë endophytes grow by intercalary hyphal extension in elongating grass leaves. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45:84-93.

Christensen, M.J., R.J. Bennett, and J. Schmid. 2001. Vascular bundle colonisation by Neotyphodium endophytes in natural and novel associations with grasses. Mycol. Res. 105:1239-1245.

Christensen, M.J., R.J. Bennett, and J. Schmid. 2002. Growth of Epichloë/Neotyphodium and p-endophytes in leaves of grass hosts. Mycol. Res. 106:93-106.

Christensen, M.J., H.S. Easton, W.R. Simpson, and B.A. Tapper. 1998. Occurrence of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in leaf blades of tall fescue and implications for stock health. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 41:595-602.

Christensen, M.J., W.R. Simpson, and T. Al-Samarrai. 2000. Infection of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass plants by combinations of different Neotyphodium endophytes. Mycol. Res. 104:974-978.

Christensen, M.J., and C.R. Voisey. 2007. The Biology of Endophyte/Grass Partnership. p. 123-133. In A. Popay and E.R. Thom (ed.) Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Fungal Endophytes of Grasses. Grassl. Res. Practice Ser. 13. N.Z. Grassl. Assoc., Christchurch, N.Z.

Chung, K.-R., W. Hollin, M.R. Siegel, and C.L. Schardl. 1997. Genetics of host specificity in Epichloë typhina. Phytopathology 87:599-605.

Clay, K., and C. Schardl. 2002. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. Am. Nat. 160:S99-S127.

Craven, K.D., K. Clay, and C.L. Schardl. 2009. Systematics and morphology. p. 11-30. In H.A. Fribourg, D.B. Hannaway, and C.P. West (ed.) Tall fescue for the twenty-first century. Agron. Monogr. 53. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Faeth, S.H., and T.J. Sullivan. 2003. Mutualistic asexual endophytes in a native grass are usually parasitic. Am. Nat. 161:310-325.

Fineran, B.A., I.C. Harvey, and M. Ingerfeld. 1983. Unusual crystalloid and aggregates of tubules in the Lolium endophyte of ryegrass leaf sheaths. Protoplasma 117:17-23.

Fleetwood, D.J., B. Scott, G.A. Lane, A. Tanaka, and R.D. Johnson. 2007. A complex ergovaline gene cluster in epichloë endophytes of grasses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:2571-2579.

Freeman, E.M. 1904. The seed fungus of Lolium temulentum L., the darnel. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 196:1-27.

Back to Top

Hinton, D.M., and C.W. Bacon. 1985. The distribution and ultrastructure of the endophyte of toxic tall fescue. Can. J. Bot. 63:36-42.

Johnson, R., C. Voisey, L. Johnson, J. Pratt, D. Fleetwood, A. Khan, and G. Bryan. 2007. Distribution of NRPS gene families within the Neotyphodium/Epichloë complex. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44(11):1180-1190.

Ju, H.J., N.S. Hill, T. Abbott, and K.T. Ingram. 2006. Temperature influences on endophyte growth in tall fescue. Crop Sci. 46:404-412.

Koga, H., M.J. Christensen, and R.J. Bennett. 1993. Incompatibility of some grass/Acremonium endophyte associations. Mycol. Res. 97:1237-1244.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1993. Nonreciprocal compatibility between Epichloë typhina and four host grasses. Mycologia 85:157-163.

Majewska-Sawka, A., and H. Nakashima. 2004. Endophyte transmission via seeds of Lolium perenne L.: Immunodetection of fungal antigens. Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:534-541.

Meijer, G., and A. Leuchtmann. 1999. Multistrain infections of the grass Brachypodium sylvaticum by its fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica. New Phytol. 141:355-368.

Moore, D. 1998. Fungal morphogenesis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Philipson, M.N. 1989. A symptomless endophyte of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) that spores on its host-a light microscope study. N.Z. J. Bot. 27:513-519.

Philipson, M.N. 1991a. Ultrastructure of a symptomless fungal endophyte of Festuca arundinacea. Bot. Gaz. 152:296-303.

Philipson, M.N. 1991b. Ultrastructure of the Gliocladium-like endophyte of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). I. Vegetative phase and leaf blade sporulation. New Phytol. 117:271-280.

Philipson, M.N., and M.C. Christey. 1986. The relationship of host and endophyte during flowering, seed formation, and germination of Lolium perenne. N.Z. J. Bot. 24:125-134.

Rasmussen, S., A.J. Parsons, S. Bassett, M.J. Christensen, D.E. Hume, L.J. Johnson, R.D. Johnson, W.R. Simpson, C. Stacke, C.R. Voisey, H. Xue, and J.A. Newman . 2007. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne. New Phytol. 173:787-797.

Schardl, C.L., R.B. Grossman, P. Nagabhyru, J.R. Faulkner, and U.P. Mallik. 2007. Loline alkaloids: Currencies of mutualism. Phytochemistry 68:980-996.

Schardl, C.L., A. Leuchtmann, and M.J. Spiering. 2004. Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55:315-340.

Schardl, C.L., D.G. Panaccione, P. Tudzynski, and A.C. Geoffrey. 2006. Ergot alkaloids-Biology and molecular biology. Alkaloids Chem. Biol. 63:45-86.

Schardl, C.L., and T.D. Phillips. 1997. Protective grass endophytes. Where are they from and where are they going? Plant Dis. 81:430-438.

Schmid, J., M.J. Spiering, and M.J. Christensen. 2000. Metabolic activity, distribution, and propagation of grass endophytes in planta: Investigations using the GUS reporter gene system. p. 295-322. In J.F. White and C.W. Bacon (ed.) Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Selosse, M.A., and C.L. Schardl. 2007. Fungal endophytes of grasses: Hybrids rescued by vertical transmission? An evolutionary perspective. New Phytol. 173:452-458.

Siegel, M.R., U. Järlfors, G.C.M. Latch, and M.C. Johnson. 1987. Ultrastructure of Acremonium coenophialum, Acremonium lolii, and Epichloë typhina endophytes in host and nonhost Festuca and Lolium species of grasses. Can. J. Bot. 65:2357-2367.

Siegel, M.R., et al. 1990. Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: Alkaloid accumulation and aphid response. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3301-3315.

Snyder, H., S. Seo, I.F. Rademacher, and W. Kühbauch. 1990. Spatial distribution of growth rates and of epidermal cell lengths in the elongation zone during leaf development in Lolium perenne. Planta 181:423-431.

Back to Top

Takemoto, D., A. Tanaka, and B. Scott. 2006. A p67Phox-like regulator is recruited to control hyphal branching in a fungal-grass mutualistic symbiosis. Plant Cell 18:2807-2821.

Tan, Y.Y., M.J. Spiering, V. Scott, G.A. Lane, M.J. Christensen, and J. Schmid. 2001. In planta regulation of extension of an endophytic fungus and maintenance of high metabolic rates in its mycelium in the absence of apical extension. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:5377-5383.

Tanaka, A., B.A. Tapper, A. Popay, E.J. Parker, and B. Scott. 2005. A symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from a mutualistic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protection to the symbiotum from insect herbivory. Mol. Microbiol. 57:1036-1050.

Tanaka, A., M.J. Christensen, D. Takemoto, P. Park, and B. Scott. 2006. Reactive oxygen spe­cies play a role in regulating a fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic association. Plant Cell 18:1052-1066.

Tenney, K., I. Hunt, J. Sweigard, J.I. Pounder, C. McClain, E.J. Bowman, and B.J. Bowman. 2000. hex-1, a gene unique to filamentous fungi, encodes the major protein of the woronin body and functions as a plug for septal pores. Fungal Genet. Biol. 31:205-217.

White, J.F., Jr. 1997. Systematics of the Graminicolous Clavicipitaceae. p. 27-39. In C.W. Bacon and N.S. Hill (ed.) Neotyphodium/grass interactions. Plenum Press, New York.

White, J.F., Jr., A.C. Morrow, G. Morgan-Jones, and D.A. Chambless. 1991. Endophyte-host associations in forage grasses. XIV. Primary stromata formation and seed transmis­sion in Epichloë typhina: Developmental and regulatory aspects. Mycologia 83:72-81.

Wille, P.A., R.A. Aeschbacher, and T. Boller. 1999. Distribution of fungal endophyte geno­types in doubly infected host grasses. Plant J. 18:349-358.

Young, C.A., et al. 2006. A complex gene cluster for indole-diterpene biosynthesis in the grass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43:679-693.


<--Previous       Back to Top      Chapter 15-->