The terms and conditions of transactions between supplier and purchaser are normally set by the supplier and may be printed on product brochures, price lists, written quotations, product labels, purchase orders, dispatch notes, or invoices. The issues that may arise in the terms and conditions include: published prices, special quotations, and an explanation of what is included in the price; which party bears the cost of delivery and insurance; liabilities in the event of product lost, damaged, or delayed during delivery; the terms of payment, including credit extended to the purchaser; acceptance of terms and conditions being indicated by the placement of a purchase order and the opening of a package and use of the product.

Ownership of the product normally is transferred from the supplier to the purchaser after payment has been made in full. The supplier normally determines the limitations on the approved uses of the product by the purchaser under the intellectual property protection, namely patent, plant variety protection, plant variety rights, and plant breeder's rights. The supplier may list these limitations or simply advise that intellectual property protection applies to the product. Royalty payments due to an owner normally are collected and paid by the wholesaler.

Seed laws and certification standards govern the supply and quality of seed. The warranty provided by the supplier normally does not cover factors outside the reasonable control of the supplier, such as natural disasters, inclement weather, diseases, incorrect use of the product, and war. Suppliers normally have a procedure to address complaints received from purchasers about seed quality and performance. Seed laws in some countries stipulate the use of arbitration and conciliation procedures to address disputes before civil court actions are permitted.


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