The marketing of private cultivars has the following characteristics:
1. The availability of seed is controlled by the owner or licensee.
2. Private cultivars are protected by Plant Variety Protection, Plant Variety Rights, Plant Breeders' Rights, or plant patent.
3. The retail price of private cultivars is usually higher than that for public cultivars.
4. A royalty (user's fee) is paid to the owner on each unit of seed sold.
5. The commercial success of a private cultivar is aided by controlled and aggressive marketing.
6. The intellectual property laws and controlled marketing of private cultivars attract the private sector investment required for the development, promotion, and education needed to bring the benefits of new technologies to pasture and livestock owners.
7. End users are not permitted to produce and sell seed from the private cultivar.
8. In many countries, the plant variety protection laws permit production and saving of seed for the purchaser's own use.