Switching from E+ to E- (Pederson et al., 1984) or novel endophyte cultivars is now an important consideration for U.S. producers interested in efficient animal productivity (see Chapter 12, Chapter 16, and Chapter 17). It should be undertaken only with careful planning (Jeffery et al., 1978), after existing infestation levels are determined, so forage production is matched to anticipated animal needs. Sampling procedures (see Chapter 15) and instructions for shipping samples to fescue endophyte diagnostic laboratories can be obtained from agricultural extension service personnel in each state. Generally, at least 12 different and widely separated plants should be sampled for each hectare (5 per acre) in each field.

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