Endophyte infection usually is measured as the presence (+) or absence (-) of fungal hyphae (filaments) within tall fescue tillers or seed and is reported as the percentage of the total tiller or seed population that is infected (Fig. 15-1). It is impractical to determine the proportion of individual plants that are infected because plants can have both infected and noninfected parts.


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Fig. 15-1. Antibody test for Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte in cross sections of tall fescue tillers. Stain indicates the presence of endophyte; unstained tillers are endophyte free. Variation in stain (red color) intensity of the top four rows reflects variation in the distribution of endophyte among and within tillers (see color figures on the enclosed CD or in the online version). The samples at bottom right are positive and negative controls (photo: N.S. Hill).


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