Conventional plant breeding is time-consuming and largely dependent on crop phenotype and environmental conditions. The development of molecular techniques for crop improvement has led to a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of the structure and behavior of crop genomes. In the past three decades, great advances have been made, and several molecular tools have been developed. Most of these tools have been used for the genetic improvement of major cereal species, but only a few have been used for tall fescue improvement. A brief summary of these tools and techniques is discussed in this chapter.