Since the discovery of problems with cattle grazing E+ tall fescue, many solutions have been proposed. Some of these remedies have their origin in research and others are somewhat speculative. The abundance of E+ tall fescue and the diverse topography on which it grows make it unlikely that replacement of all the KY-31 tall fescue with other forages will take place in the United States; therefore, several strategies exist on how to reduce the severity of toxicosis (Roberts and Andrae, 2004). These options (see Chapter 6) focus on reducing the exposure of grazing animals to the alkaloids produced by N. coenophialum, and many are cost-effective and available to most cattle managers and producers.

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