Research on the effects of N. coenophialum on grazing animals has yielded many important discoveries that have resulted in improved animal performance and strategies to reduce the severity of tall fescue toxicosis. Chief among these improvements are the development of new cultivars with nontoxic endophytes, identifying critical periods when N. coenophialum depresses reproduction, and understanding the interactions between the types of alkaloids produced and animal responses. It is recognized now that pastures seeded in recent years with E- or nontoxic E+ seed must be grazed with more care than traditional E+ fescue pastures to maintain stand longevity. Continued research and extension efforts are needed to deliver to livestock managers and producers low-cost, simple technology that effectively alleviates tall fescue toxicosis and related disorders.


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