Table 19-4. Trends in tall fescue breeding as indicated by forage cultivars registered by the American Society of Agronomy or the Crop Science Society of America, 1945 through 2005.

 

Period†

1945-1980‡

1981-1995

1996-2005

Number of registrations (n

7

7

1

 

------------- % -------------

Breeding method¶

 

 

 

Ecotype selection

29

14

100

Phenotypic selection

43

14

0

Recurrent selection

0

64

0

Other

29

7

0

Germplasm contribution

 

 

 

Cultivars

7

36

0

Advanced breeding lines

0

14

0

Ryegrass-fescue hybrids

14

7

0

Ecotypes

14

29

100

Plant introductions

21

14

0

Other/not given

43

0

0

Traits selected

 

 

 

Adaptation/persistence

29

14

50

Forage quality

17

5

0

Palatability/soft leaves

22

10

0

Vigor/forage yield

7

30

50

Disease resistance

3

12

0

Maturity

0

14

0

Seed yield

3

0

0

Other/not given

19

15

0

Endophyte status#

 

 

 

E+

-

14

-

E-

-

86

-

E+/E-

-

0

100

Unknown

100

0

0

Developer

 

 

 

Public (USDA, university, etc.)

86

64

100

Private

14

36

 

Plant variety protection granted

43

86

100

† Period indicates date of registration.

‡ Percentages may total more than 100 because of rounding.

§ Georgia 5 (1981-1995) and Jesup (1996-2005) listed as both forage and turf cultivars.

¶ Breeding method, percentage germplasm contribution, and trait selection derived from descriptions in registration articles.

# E+, endophyte infected; E-, low or no endophyte; E+/E-, endophyte infected and endophyte free versions of the same cultivar available.

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