This chapter answers the questions what, how, where, when, and who of measuring Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin endophyte in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceaum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. Analysis is a technical procedure that usually is performed on samples collected from the field and sent to a laboratory. The most common description of endophyte infection is the proportion of tillers in a field that have endophyte present. The availability of new detection options allows measurement with relatively simple laboratory equipment. The commercial availability of nontoxic novel endophytes in tall fescue is making the detection of endophytes and determination of their toxic potential complex. This is due to the need for the analysis to distinguish those plants with endophytes that are producing toxic alkaloids from those plants with endophytes that are producing nontoxic alkaloids. Guidelines for sampling endophyte in tall fescue pasture are presented.
Keywords: sampling guide, endophyte testing, endophyte detection, endophyte measurement, re-infestation, seed contamination.
Abbreviations: E-, endophyte free, free of Neotyphodium; E+, infected by wild Neotyphodium endophyte; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunoassay; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; NIR, near-infrared spectroscopy; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance.
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