- Origin of Tall Fescue
- Fescue Toxicity Problems
- Determining the Cause of Toxicity Problems
- Reducing the Toxicity Problem
- Source of the Endophyte and Beneficial Effects on Host Plant
- Life Cycle, Endophyte Detection, and Identification of Toxic Product
- Nontoxic Novel Endophyte Associations
Chapter 1: Origin and History
Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.], a native of Europe, was introduced to the United States in the 1800s but was not planted widely until the 1940s and 1950s. Unfortunately, this persistent and productive grass caused serious toxicity problems in livestock. The cause of these problems was discovered in the late 1970s to be from alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin]. Removal of the fungi eliminated the toxicity problem but resulted in a weakened plant. Research showed that the endophyte was beneficial to the plant in improving drought and grazing tolerance, water and N-use efficiency, and resistance or tolerance to some pests. Practical solutions to reduce the fescue toxicity problem include (i) dilution of the forage with legumes, other grasses, and weeds; (ii) replanting with endophyte free tall fescue (E-); and (iii) replanting with cultivars containing novel endophyte. Such cultivars furnish excellent animal performance since their endophyte strains are nontoxic and improve plant persistence over E- tall fescue.
Keywords: Grazing, yield distribution, stockpiling, fertilization, toxicosis, alkaloid management.
Abbreviations: E+, infected by wild Neotyphodium endophyte.
See Related Information In: