TERMINOLOGY FOR GRAZING LANDS AND GRAZING
The Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee
Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was originally published in 1991 by Pocahontas Press, Post Office Drawer F, Blacksburg, VA 24063-1020, (703) 951-0467. It was also published in 1992 in the Journal of Production Agriculture, 5:191-201.
The terms and definitions in this book have been endorsed by:
- The American Dairy Science Association
- The American Forage and Grassland Council
- The American Society of Agronomy
- The American Society of Animal Science
- The Crop Science Society of America
- The Society for Range Management
and have been recommended for use by:
- The Grazing Lands Forum
- The Northeast Pasture Management Coordinating Committee
RESOLUTION PASSED AT THE XVII INTERNATIONAL GRASSLAND CONGRESS
Rockhampton, AustraliaFebruary 21, 1993
"It is recommended that the International Grassland Congress endorse the continuing development of uniformity of terminology for grazing systems and grazing management, and that the Forage and Grazing Terminology Task Force report progress at the XVIII Congress".
TERMINOLOGY FOR GRAZING LANDS AND GRAZING ANIMALS
The Forage and Grazing Terminology CommitteePreface
As the science and industry of grazing animals has grown in recent years, there has been a parallel growth of terminology, but definitions of terms have sometimes been obscure and inappropriate, and there has been a proliferation of terms used for a single meaning or definition. Communication based on such terms results in confusion and fails to convey information. A search of the literature failed to reveal comprehensive definitions of the terms used with grazing lands and grazing animals.
To resolve these problems of terminology, the Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee was organized to address the issue of usage of terms relevant to grazing animals. Although this Committee was initiated by the American Forage and Grassland Council, it was recognized from the outset that to be successful, such an effort would need to be undertaken jointly by the broad array of organizations and agencies that have an interest in grazing animals. Thus, this Committee was composed of representatives of scientific societies, agencies within the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and other appropriate groups that have an interest in grazing lands and grazing animals. It was also recognized that such terminology would be more useful if international participation was invited and encouraged. Thus, corresponding members from Australia and New Zealand were included. This Committee was assembled with the express purpose of addressing the discrepancies in terminology and producing a glossary of terms and definitions. Upon completion of its assignment, the publication of this Glossary, the Committee is to be dissolved.
. The charge to this Committee was to develop a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals. The availability of standardized terms and definitions should be of value for teaching, research, extension, industry and production. It is hoped that it will be the standard for use by authors and editors of publications concerning grazing. In scope, it goes beyond the grazing of domestic livestock and is applicable to grazing by wild animals as well, but terms were restricted to those directly applicable to grazing by animals. Thus, terms addressed by the Committee were kept narrowly focused into four categories: 1) Terms for forages and grazing lands; 2) Management concept terms; 3) Terms of measurement, space, time or degree; and 4) Methods of grazing.
The approach of the Committee was to examine the merit, justification and logic of each term. Common use alone did not justify the existence of a term if it was unsound in logic or was simply an alternative version of an already existing and acceptable term. Frequently, such terms have evolved in attempts to portray a concept or grazing management principle as something new and different, when in reality the term is simply a new word for an already existing and defined concept. Use of such terms causes misunderstanding and misrepresents established principles. Some terms are of value to present concepts even though the concept may not be easily documentable or measurable. Whenever possible, it has be useful to identify first the term in the broad sense, then the terms that identify the various component parts. This organization helps to establish relationships among term groups and to form the structure that can be the basis for new terms. A single, concise definition has been the objective, rather than a listing of alternatives.
As a result of the work of this Committee, a review of the literature dealing with terminology was compiled. This collection of references is in itself of value and is included in this publication.
During the preparation of this manuscript, each member of the Committee was encouraged to contact other individuals and groups to seek suggestions and to critique. Appreciation is expressed to the many individuals not on this committee, who freely offered their suggestions and encouragement.
Terminology that is clearly and concisely defined leads to meaningful communication that enhances education, science, industry and production. The task of defining terminology is one that is never completed. Rather, it is one that must keep pace with the profession. As new concepts emerge, as techniques and methods change, and as the state of the art and science evolves, new terms will always be required and old terms will need to be redefined. A basic need for progress in the art and science of grazing animals is that, to the greatest extent possible, a common language be spoken.
Vivien G. Allen, Chair
The Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee
Members of the Committee
- Vivien G. Allen, Chair
- Pat Bagley, American Forage and Grassland Council
- Peter Ballerstadt, American Forage and Grassland Council
- Harold Baxter (Deceased) American Dairy Science Association
- David I. Bransby, Crop Science Society of America
- T. F. Brown, American Dairy Science Association
- Dwayne Buxton, Crop Science Society of America
- Dennis Child, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service
- Jenness Coffey, U.S. Department of the Interior/National Park Service
- Harlan DeGarmo, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Soil Conservation Service
- Henry A. Fribourg, America Forage and Grassland Council
- Martha Hood, U.S. Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Library
- Floyd Horn, American Forage and Grassland Council
- Douglas A. Johnson, American Society of Agronomy
- Earl Kesler, American Dairy Science Association
- Frank Khattat, U.S. Department of the Interior/Bureau of Indian Affairs
- Mort Kothmann,Society for Range Management
- Garry Lacefield, Forage, Grassland and Range Resources Committee of the American Society of Agronomy
- Fred Martz, American Forage and Grassland Council
- A. G. Matches, American Forage and Grassland Council
- Paul McCawley, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Extension Service
- Henry Pearson, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service
- Dennis Phillippi, Society for Range Management
- Les Reid, American Society of Animal Science
- Dave Sleper, American Forage and Grassland Council
- Charles Staples, American Dairy Science Association
- Dan Undersander, American Society of Agronomy
- Les Vough, Grazing Lands Forum
- Joe D. Wallace, American Society of Animal Science
- Robert Williamson, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service
- John Willoughby, U.S. Department of the Interior/Bureau of Land Management
- John Hodgson, New Zealand
- Dennis Minson, Australia
Members of the Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee were nominated and selected for their special competencies and for a balance of representation among geographic regions, areas of expertise, and organizational representation.
This publication was funded by a grant from the Forage and Grassland Foundation, Inc., Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A. Appreciation is expressed to the Forage and Grassland Foundation for their support of this project.
The Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee
Section I. Terms for forages and grazing lands
Section II. Management concept terms
Section III. Terms of measurement, space, time, or degree
Section IV. Methods of Grazing
Section I. Terms for forages and grazing lands.
Grazing Land terms
Kinds of Grazing Lands
Ecological Land Types
- I.1. Forage
- (nl) Edible parts of plants, other than separated grain, that can provide feed for grazing animals, or that can be harvested for feeding. Includes browse, herbage, and mast. (v3) To search for, or to consume forage (cf.4 (v) Browse, I.l.a.(v) Graze,I.7.).
- I.1.a. Browse
- (n) Leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines, trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal consumption.(v) To browse. The consumption of browse in situ by animals (cf. Forage, I.1.; Graze, I.7.).
- I.1.b. Herbage
- The biomass of herbaceous plants, other than separated grain, generally above ground but including edible roots and tubers (cf. Herbaceous, I.3.).
- I.1.b.i. Forb
- Any herbaceous broadleaf plant that is not a grass and is not grass-like (cf. Legume, I.1.b.i.(l).; Grass, I.l.b.ii.; Grass-like, I.l.b.iii.)
- Members of the plant family Fabaceae.
- I.1.b.ii. Grass
- Members of the plant family Poaceae.
- I.1.b.iii. Grass-like
- Vegetation that is similar to grass in appearance and is usually a member of the plant family Cyperaceae (sedges) or Juncaceae (rushes).
- I.1.b.iv. Pasturage
- Not a recommended term. (cf. Forage, I.1.; Pasture, III.2.).The recommended definition of pasture refers to a specific kind of grazing management unit, not that which is consumed, which is forage. Thus, pasturage is not a useful term.
- I.l.c. Mast
- Fruits and seed of shrubs, woody vines, trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal consumption.
- I.2. Forage crop
- A crop of cultivated plants or plant parts, other than separated grain, produced to be grazed or harvested for use as feed for animals.
- I.2.a. Aftermath
- Forage grown following a harvest.
- I.2.b. Residue
- Forage remaining on the land as a consequence of harvest.
- I.3. Herbaceous
- I.4. Sward
- A population of herbaceous plants, characterized by a relatively short habit of growth and relatively continuous ground cover, including both above and below-ground parts (Hodgson, 1979).
- I.5. Vegetation
- (n) Plant life in general (Webster s, 1988).
- I.5.a. Vegetative
- Non-reproductive plant parts, i.e. leaf and stem; in contrast to reproductive plant parts, i.e. flower and seed, in developmental stages of plant growth. The non-reproductive stage in plant development.
GRAZING LAND TERMS
- I.6. Grazing land
- Any vegetated land that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed by animals.
KINDS OF GRAZING LANDS
- I.6.a. Cropland
- Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops (cf. forage crop, I.2.). Provides basis for land use mapping unit.
- I.6.b. Forestland
- Land on which the vegetation is dominated by forest or, if trees are lacking, the land bears evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other vegetation. Provides basis for land use mapping unit.
- I.6.b.i. Agroforestry
- Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production.
- I.6.b.ii. Agro-silvo-pastoral
- Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural crops, forage crops, and livestock production.
- I.6.b.iii. Grazable forestland
- Forestland that produces, at least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation that can be grazed. Forage is indigenous or, if introduced, it is managed as though it were indigenous (Syn: grazable woodland, woodland range, forest range).
- I.6.b.iii.(1). Forest grazing
- The combined use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing of the coexisting indigenous forage, or vegetation that is managed like indigenous forage.
- I.6.b.iii.(2). Silvo-pastoral
- Preferred term is Forest grazing, I.6.b.iii.(1).
- I.6.c. Pastureland
- Land devoted to the production of indigenous or introduced forage for harvest primarily by grazing. Pastureland generally must be managed to arrest successional processes (cf. Pasture, III.2.). Provides basis for land use mapping unit. Pastureland can include some grassland (I.6.g.).
- I.6.d. Range
- Land supporting indigenous vegetation that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem. Range includes grazable forestland (I.6.b.iii.) and rangeland (I.6.d.ii.).
- I.6.d.i. Grazable forestland
- (See I.6.b.iii. above.)
- I.6.d.ii. Rangeland
- Land on which the indigenous vegetation (climax or natural potential) is predominantly grasses grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs and is managed as a natural ecosystem. If plants are introduced, they are managed as indigenous species. Provides basis for land use mapping unit. Rangelands include natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes and meadows.
ECOLOGICAL LAND TYPES
- I.6.e. Desert
- Land on which the vegetation is absent or sparse, usually shrubby, and is characterized by an arid, hot to cool climate.
- I.6.f. Forestland
- (See I.6.b. above).
- I.6.g. Grassland
- Land on which the vegetation is dominated by grasses (cf. Pastureland, I.6.c.; Rangeland, I.6.d.ii.).
- I.6.g.i. Meadow
- A tract of grassland where productivity of indigenous or introduced forage is modified due to characteristics of the landscape position or hydrology. (cf. Grassland, I.6.g.; Pasture, III.2.; Pastureland, I.6.c.; Rangeland, I.6.d.ii.). May be characterized as: hay meadow, native meadow, mountain meadow, wet meadow, or other designations.
- I.6.g.ii. Prairie
- Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally treeless, and usually characterized by fertile soil.
- I.6.g.iii. Savanna
- Grassland with scattered trees or shrubs; often a transitional type between true grassland and forestland, and accompanied by a climate with alternating wet and dry seasons.
- I.6.g.iv. Steppe
- Semi-arid grassland characterized by short grasses occurring in scattered bunches with other herbaceous vegetation and occasional woody species.
- I.6.h. Marshland
- Flat, wet, treeless land usually covered by water and dominated by marsh grasses, indigenous rushes, sedges, or other grass-like plants.
- I.6.i. Range
- (See I.6.d. above).
- I.6.j. Shrubland
- Land on which the vegetation is dominated by shrubs .
- I.6.k. Tundra
- Land areas in arctic and alpine regions devoid of large trees, varying from bare ground to various types of vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs and trees, mosses, and lichens.
- I.7. Graze
- (v) To graze. The consumption of forage in situ by animals (cf. Browse, I.l.a.). This verb should be used in the active form with the animal as the subject. The verb should not be used in the passive voice so as to imply that a person is the subject or actor; i.e., cattle graze; people do not graze cattle.
- I.8. Mob
- See Mob grazing, IV. 16.
Section II. Management concept terms.
- II.1. Grazing land management
- The manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazing land.
- II.2.Grazing management
- The manipulation of animal grazing in pursuit of a defined objective.
- II.2.a. Controlled grazing
- Not an acceptable term. See Grazing management, II.2.; Grazing method, II.3.; Grazing system, II.4.; Rotational grazing, IV.24.; Rotational stocking, IV.25. Controlled grazing has sometimes been used erroneously to describe increased grazing management. The control imposed is a matter of level or degree and is better described in terms of grazing management and grazing methods.
- II.2.b. Extensive grazing management
- Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labor, resources, or capital (cf. Intensive grazing management, II.2.c.).
- II.2.c. Intensive grazing management
- Grazing management that attempts to increase production or utilization per unit area or production per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, forage utilization, labor, resources, or capital (cf. Extensive grazing management, II.2.b.) Intensive grazing management is not synonymous with rotational grazing. Grazing management can be intensified by substituting any one of a number of grazing methods that utilize a relatively greater amount of labor or capital resources.
- II.2.d. Holistic resource management
- Not a recommended term.
- II.3. Grazing method
- A defined procedure or technique of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s).One or more grazing methods can be utilized within a grazing system.
- II.4. Grazing system
- A defined, integrated combination of animal, plant, soil, and other environmental components and the grazing method(s) by which the system is managed to achieve specific results or goals.Descriptive common names may be used; however, the first usage of a grazing system name in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should include at least the following information: number, size, kind, slope, erosion status, and soil classification of land units; number, kind, sex, size, and age of livestock; duration of use and non-use periods for each unit in the system; grazing method(s); type(s) of forage; and geographic location and elevation; type of climate, mean annual and seasonal temperatures, and precipitation.
- II.5. Rest
- To leave an area of grazing land ungrazed or unharvested for a specific time, such as a year, a growing season, or a specified period required within a particular management practice (cf. Rest period, III.20.; Ungrazed, II.7; Syn: Spell).
- II.6.Stockpiling forage
- (v) To allow forage to accumulate for grazing at a later period. Forage is often stockpiled for autumn and winter grazing, after or during dormancy or semi-dormancy, but stockpiling may occur at any time during the year as a part of a management plan. Stockpiling can be described in terms of deferment, III.13. and forage accumulation,III.10.
- II.7. Ungrazed (i)
- The status of grazing land that is not grazed by animals. (ii)The status of plants or plant parts that are not grazed by animals (cf. Rest, II.5.).
Section III. Terms of measurement, space, time, or degree
Terminology of Area
Terminology to Compare Animals
Land- and/or Forage-To-Animal Relationships
Terminology Referring to Measurements of Forage
Terminology Referring to Time
TERMINOLOGY OF AREA
- III.1. Grazing management unit
- The grazing land area used to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions (cf. Paddock, III.1.a.; Pasture,III.2.).
- III.1.a. Paddock
- A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier (cf. Grazing management unit, III.l.; Pasture, III.2.).
- III.2. Pasture
- (i) A type of grazing management unit enclosed and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers and devoted to the production of forage for harvest primarily by grazing (cf.Grazing management unit, III.1.; Paddock, III. l .a.;Pastureland,1.6.c. (ii) See forage, I.1.
TERMINOLOGY TO COMPARE ANIMALS
- III.3. Animal unit
- One mature non-lactating bovine weighing 500 kg and fed at a maintenance level, or the equivalent, expressed as (weight)0.75,in other kinds or classes of animals (cf. Standard livestock unit, VI.1.).The use of animal unit in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should include at least the following information: kind (species and breed), class, sex, size, age, and physiological status of livestock.
- III.4. Forage intake unit
- An animal with a rate of forage consumption equal to 8 kg dry matter/day. Assuming that one animal unit has a dry matter intake rate of 8 kg/day (NRC, 1984), any animal may be represented as a certain fraction or multiple of the animal-unit, based solely on its rate of forage intake per day. An animal which has a forage intake rate larger or smaller than 8 kg dry matter/day will have an animal-unit-equivalent which is a proportionate fraction or multiple of one animal unit (adapted from Scarnecchia and Kothmann, 1982)
The use of forage intake unit in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should include at least the following information: forage species and cultivar, stage of growth, plant height, and forage mass.
LAND- AND/OR FORAGE-TO-ANIMAL RELATIONSHIPS
- III.5. Carrying capacity
- The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance, in a specified grazing method, that can be applied over a defined time period without deterioration of the ecosystem. Carrying capacity is not static from season-to-season or year-to-year and may be defined over fractional parts of years. The average carrying capacity refers to the long term carrying capacity averaged over years, whereas the annual carrying capacity refers to a specific year.
- III.6. Forage allowance
- The relationship between the weight of forage dry matter per unit area and the number of animal units or forage intake units at any one point in time; a forage-to-animal relationship. The inverse of grazing pressure. May be expressed as forage mass per animal unit or forage intake unit (forage mass/animal unit at a specific time). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.
- III.7. Grazing pressure
- The relationship between the number of animal units or forage intake units and the weight of forage dry matter per unit area at any one point in time; an animal-to forage relationship. May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units to forage mass (animal units/forage mass at a specific time).
- III.8. Stocking density
- The relationship between the number of animals and the specific unit of land being grazed at any one point in time (cf.Stocking rate, III.9.). May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units per unit of land area (animal units at a specific time/area of land).
- III.9. Stocking rate
- The relationship between the number of animals and the grazing management unit utilized over a specified time period (cf. Stocking density, III.8.). May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units per unit of land area (animal units over a described time period/area of land).
TERMINOLOGY REFERRING TO MEASUREMENTS OF FORAGE
- III.10. Forage accumulation
- The increase in forage mass per unit area over a specified period of time. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.
- III.11. Forage mass
- The total dry weight of forage per unit area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level (cf. Available forage, III.11.a.; Herbage, I.1.b.). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.
- III.11.a. Available forage
- That portion of the forage, expressed as weight of forage per unit land area, that is accessible for consumption by a specified kind, class, sex, size, age, and physiological status of grazing animal (cf. Forage allowance III.6.; Forage mass,III.11.). Not a preferred term. Forage is a defined entity (I.1.). That which is available for grazing is hypothetical but has value as a concept. This term often is used erroneously for forage mass, III.11.
- III.l1.b. Available pasture
- Not a recommended term. (See Available forage, III.11.a.; cf pasture, III.2.). Pasture refers to a specific type of grazing management unit, not to that which is consumed.
TERMINOLOGY REFERRING TO TIME
- III.12. Animal unit day
- The amount of dry forage consumed by one animal unit per 24-hour period. Animal unit day is used to express the quantity of forage intake for a period of time and may be extrapolated to other time periods, such as week, month, or year (cf. Animal unit, III.3.; Forage intake unit, III.4.)
- III.13. Deferment
- The postponement or delay of grazing to achieve a specific management objective (cf. Deferred grazing, IV.5., Rotational deferred, IV. 23.). A strategy aimed at providing time for plant reproduction, establishment of new plants, restoration of plant vigor, a return to environmental conditions appropriate for grazing, or the accumulation of forage for later use.
- III.14. Grazing cycle
- The time elapsed between the beginning of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period.
- III.15. Grazing event
- The length of time that an animal grazes without stopping (cf.Grazing period, III.16.).
- III.16. Grazing period
- The length of time that grazing livestock or wildlife occupy a specific land area (cf. Grazing event, III.15.).
- III.17. Grazing season (i)
- The time period during which grazing can normally be practiced each year or portion of each year.(ii) On U.S. public lands, an established period for which grazing permits are issued. It may be the whole year or a very short time span, and is normally a function of forage mass and climate. In this context, the vegetative growing season may be only a part of the grazing season.
- III.18. Period of occupation
- The length of time that a specific land area is occupied, whether by one animal group, or by two or more animal groups in succession (cf. First-last grazing, IV.6., Forward creep grazing, IV.9., Period of stay III. 19.).
- III.19.Period of stay
- The length of time that a particular animal group occupies a specific land area (cf. First-last grazing, IV.6., Forward creep grazing, IV.9., Period of occupation, III. 18.). Period of occupation and period of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area. The term is useful in describing grazing methods such as first-last grazing. The period of occupation is the total time that a specific land area is utilized and may involve several different groups of animals moving through in sequence, as in first-last grazing or in migrations. It differs from grazing period in that grazing may or may not be involved. (Example: feeding hay on pasture in winter when ice prevents grazing). The period of stay defines the fractional part of the period of occupation that any one of the two or more animal groups occupy the specified land area. It constitutes only a part of the period of occupation.
- III.20. Rest period
- The length of time that a specific land area is allowed to rest (cf. Rest, II.5.; Syn: Spelling period).
Section IV. Methods of Grazing.
- IV.I. Alternate stocking
- The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocksin succession.
- IV.2. Continuous grazing
- Not a recommended term because animals do not graze continuously. If used it is synonymous with Continuous stocking, IV.3.
- IV.3. Continuous stocking
- A method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed (cf.Rotational stocking, IV.25.; Set stocking, IV.28.). The length of the grazing period should be defined.
- IV.4. Creep grazing
- The practice of allowing juvenile animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time.
- 1V.5. Deferred grazing
- The deferment of grazing in a non-systematic rotation with other land units (cf. Deferment, III.13.)
- IV.6. First-last grazing
- A method of utilizing two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area. (Syn: leader follower, preference follower, top and bottom grazing. First-last grazing is the preferred term.) If more than two groups of animals are grazed sequentially, this would be described as first, second, and last grazing.
- IV.7. Fixed stocking
- Not a recommended term. See Set stocking, IV.28.
- IV.8. Flip-Flop grazing
- Not an acceptable term (cf. Alternate stocking,, IV.I.).
- IV.9. Forward creep
- A method of creep grazing in which dams and offspring rotate through a series of paddocks with offspring as first grazers and dams as last grazers. A specific form of first-last grazing (cf. first-last grazing, IV.6.).
- IV.10. Frontal grazing
- A grazing method that allocates forage within a land area by means of a sliding fence that livestock can advance to gain access to ungrazed forage.
- IV.11. High intensity grazing
- Not an acceptable term (cf. Grazing management, II.2.; Intensive grazing management, II.2.c ). This is a relative concept that is best described in terms of grazing management and grazing method.
- IV.12. Intermittent grazing
- A method that imposes grazing for indefinite periods at irregular intervals.
- IV.13. Leader-follower grazing
- Not a recommended term. See First-last grazing, IV.6.
- IV.14. Low density grazing
- Not an acceptable term. This is a relative concept that is best described in terms of grazing management and grazing method.
- IV.15. Mixed grazing
- Grazing by two or more species of grazing animals on the same land unit, not necessarily at the same time but within the same grazing season.
- IV.16. Mob grazing
- In the management of a grazing unit, grazing by a relatively large number of animals at a high stocking density for a short time period.
- IV.l7. Multispecies grazing
- Not an acceptable term. Multi refers to many, while this grazing method most often employs only two animal species. Thus, mixed more accurately describes this method of grazing. See Mixed grazing, lV.15.
- IV.18. Non-selective grazing
- Utilization of forage by grazing animals so that all forage species and/or all plants within a species are grazed (cf. mob grazing, IV.16.) Non-selective grazing is generally attempted by using high stocking rates or high stocking densities during short time periods. In practice, non-selective grazing is achieved rarely.
- IV.19. Preference-follower grazing
- Not a recommended term. See First-last grazing, IV.6.
- IV.20. Put-and-take stocking
- The use of variable animal numbers during a grazing period or grazing season, with a periodic adjustment in animal numbers in an attempt to maintain desired sward management criteria, i.e., a desired quantity of forage, degree of defoliation, or grazing pressure.
- IV.21. Ration grazing
- Confining animals to an area of grazing land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal (cf. Strip grazing,IV.30.).
- IV.22. Rest-rotation grazing
- Not a recommended term. See Rotational stocking, IV.25.
- IV.23. Rotational deferred
- Systematic rotation of deferment among land areas within a grazing management unit.
- IV.24. Rotational grazing
- Not a recommended term. If used it is synonymous with Rotational stocking, IV.25
- IV.25. Rotational stocking
- A grazing method that utilizes recurring periods of grazing and rest among two or more paddocks in a grazing management unit throughout the period when grazing is allowed (cf. Continuous stocking, IV.3.). The lengths of the grazing and of the rest periods should be defined.
Words such as controlled orintensive are sometimes used in an attempt to describe the degree of grazing management applied to this grazing method. These words are not synonyms for rotational stocking.
- IV.26. Seasonal grazing
- Grazing restricted to one or more specific seasons of the year.
- IV.27. Sequence grazing
- The grazing of two or more land units in succession that differ in forage species composition. Sequence grazing takes advantage of differences among forage species and species combinations, grown in separate areas for management purposes, to extend grazing seasons enhance forage quality and/or quantity, or achieve some other management objective.
- IV.28. Set stocking
- The practice of allowing a fixed number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed (cf.Variable stocking, IV.32.).
- IV.29. Short duration grazing
- Not an acceptable term. A subjective term that can best be described in terms of Grazing methods, II.3., Grazing periods, III.16., and Rest periods, III.20.
- IV.30. Strip grazing
- Confining animals to an area of grazing land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time, where the paddock size is varied to allow access to a specific land area (cf. Ration grazing,IV.21.).Strip grazing may or may not be a form of rotational stocking, depending on whether or not specific paddocks are utilized for recurring periods of grazing and rest (cf. rotational stocking, IV.25.)
- IV.31. Top and bottom grazing
- Not an acceptable term. See First-last grazing, IV.6.
- IV.32. Variable stocking
- The practice of allowing a variable number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed (cf.Set stocking, IV.28.).